Negro alpha-thalassaemia is caused by deletion of a single alpha-globin gene.
Higgs DR., Pressley L., Old JM., Hunt DM., Clegg JB., Weatherall DJ., Serjeant GR.
Studies in two Jamaican Negro families, including haematological and haemoglobin analysis, haemoglobin synthesis, and globin messenger-RNA assay, have defined two alpha-thalassaemia phenotypes which resemble the severe (alpha-thalassaemia 1) and mild (alpha-thalassaemia 2) forms of the disorder described in Orientals. Genetic analysis suggests that subjects with the alpha-thalassaemia-1 phenotype are homozygous for the alpha-thalassaemia-2 determinant. Restriction-endonuclease mapping shows that alpha-thalassaemia-2 results from the deletion of one of the linked pair of alpha-chain genes. Hence the genotypes of the alpha-thalassaemia heterozygotes and homozygotes in these families are -alpha/alpha alpha and -alpha/-alpha respectively. If these are the usual alpha-thalassaemia genotypes in Negroes, these findings explain the difference in clinical expression of the disorder between Orientals and Negroes--in particular, the absence of haemoglobin Bart's hydrops and the rarity of haemoglobin-H disease in Negroes.