NAADP Activates two-pore channels on t cell cytolytic granules to stimulate exocytosis and killing
Davis LC., Morgan AJ., Chen JL., Snead CM., Bloor-Young D., Shenderov E., Stanton-Humphreys MN., Conway SJ., Churchill GC., Parrington J., Cerundolo V., Galione A.
A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) kills an infected or tumorigenic cell by Ca 2+ -dependent exocytosis of cytolytic granules at the immunological synapse formed between the two cells. Although inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 )-mediated Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum activates the store-operated Ca 2+ -influx pathway that is necessary for exocytosis, it is not a sufficient stimulus [1-4]. Here we identify the Ca 2+ -mobilizing messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and its recently identified molecular target, two-pore channels (TPCs) [5-7], as being important for T cell receptor signaling in CTLs. We demonstrate that cytolytic granules are not only reservoirs of cytolytic proteins but are also the acidic Ca 2+ stores mobilized by NAADP via TPC channels on the granules themselves, so that TPCs migrate to the immunological synapse upon CTL activation. Moreover, NAADP activates TPCs to drive exocytosis in a way that is not mimicked by global Ca 2+ signals induced by IP 3 or ionomycin, suggesting that critical, local Ca 2+ nanodomains around TPCs stimulate granule exocytosis. Hence, by virtue of the NAADP/TPC pathway, cytolytic granules generate Ca 2+ signals that lead to their own exocytosis and to cell killing. This study highlights a selective role for NAADP in stimulating exocytosis crucial for immune cell function and may impact on stimulus-secretion coupling in wider cellular contexts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.