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The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica has evolved an array of traits for propagation and invasion of the intestinal layers. It remains largely elusive how Salmonella adjusts its metabolic states to survive inside immune host cells. In this study, single-cell Raman biotechnology combined with deuterium isotope probing (Raman-DIP) have been applied to reveal metabolic changes of the typhoidal Salmonella Typhi Ty2, the nontyphoidal Salmonella Typhimurium LT2, and a clinical isolate Typhimurium D23580. By initially labeling the Salmonella strains with deuterium, we employed reverse labeling to track their metabolic changes in the time-course infection of THP-1 cell line, human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) and macrophages (Mf). We found that, in comparison with a noninvasive serovar, the invasive Salmonella strains Ty2 and D23580 have downregulated metabolic activity inside human macrophages and dendritic cells and used lipids as alternative carbon source, perhaps a strategy to escape from the host immune response. Proteomic analysis using high sensitivity mass spectrometry validated the findings of Raman-DIP analysis.

Original publication




Journal article


Anal Chem

Publication Date





7729 - 7737


Cell Line, Deuterium, Down-Regulation, Humans, Isotope Labeling, Macrophages, Metabolome, Principal Component Analysis, Salmonella typhi, Single-Cell Analysis, Spectrum Analysis, Raman