Whole genome experimental maps of DNA G-quadruplexes in multiple species.
Marsico G., Chambers VS., Sahakyan AB., McCauley P., Boutell JM., Antonio MD., Balasubramanian S.
Genomic maps of DNA G-quadruplexes (G4s) can help elucidate the roles that these secondary structures play in various organisms. Herein, we employ an improved version of a G-quadruplex sequencing method (G4-seq) to generate whole genome G4 maps for 12 species that include widely studied model organisms and also pathogens of clinical relevance. We identify G4 structures that form under physiological K+ conditions and also G4s that are stabilized by the G4-targeting small molecule pyridostatin (PDS). We discuss the various structural features of the experimentally observed G-quadruplexes (OQs), highlighting differences in their prevalence and enrichment across species. Our study describes diversity in sequence composition and genomic location for the OQs in the different species and reveals that the enrichment of OQs in gene promoters is particular to mammals such as mouse and human, among the species studied. The multi-species maps have been made publicly available as a resource to the research community. The maps can serve as blueprints for biological experiments in those model organisms, where G4 structures may play a role.