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A non-replicating form of pseudotyped influenza virus, inactivated by suppression of the haemagglutinin signal sequence (S-FLU), can act as a broadly protective vaccine. S-FLU can infect for a single round only, and induces heterotypic protection predominantly through activation of cross-reactive T cells in the lung. Unlike the licensed live attenuated virus, it cannot reassort a pandemic haemagglutinin (HA) into seasonal influenza. Here we present data on four new forms of S-FLU coated with H7 HAs from either A/Anhui/1/2013, A/Shanghai/1/2013, A/Netherlands/219/2003 or A/New York/107/2003 strains of H7 virus. We show that intranasal vaccination induced a strong local CD8 T cell response and protected against heterosubtypic X31 (H3N2) virus and highly virulent PR8 (H1N1), but not influenza B virus. Intranasal vaccination also induced a strong neutralizing antibody response to the encoded neuraminidase. If given at higher dose in the periphery with intraperitoneal administration, H7 S-FLU induced a specific neutralizing antibody response to H7 HA coating the particle. Polyvalent intraperitoneal vaccination with mixed H7 S-FLU induced a broadly neutralizing antibody response to all four H7 strains. S-FLU is a versatile vaccine candidate that could be rapidly mobilized ahead of a new pandemic threat.

Original publication




Journal article


J Gen Virol

Publication Date





431 - 445


S-FLU, cellular immunology, influenza, live attenuated vaccine, virus replication, Animals, Antibodies, Neutralizing, Antibodies, Viral, Cross Protection, Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus, Humans, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype, Influenza Vaccines, Influenza, Human, Male, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Neuraminidase, Vaccination