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Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature. In vitro and ex vivo EEV fractions augmented cellular protrusion formation in a CX3CL1/fractalkine-dependent fashion and enhanced the directional migratory response of human dendritic cells along guidance cues. We conclude that perilymphatic LEC exosomes enhance exploratory behavior and thus promote directional migration of CX3CR1-expressing cells in complex tissue environments.

Original publication




Journal article


J Cell Biol

Publication Date





2205 - 2221


Animals, Cell Line, Tumor, Cell Movement, Cell Surface Extensions, Cellular Microenvironment, Chemokine CX3CL1, Collagen, Cues, Dendritic Cells, Endothelial Cells, Exosomes, Humans, Inflammation, Kidney, Lymphatic Vessels, Male, Mice, Prostatic Neoplasms, Proteomics, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Signal Transduction, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha