Innate immune receptors for cross-presentation: The expanding role of NLRs.
Corridoni D., Simmons A.
A critical role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is to influence adaptive immune responses by regulating antigen presentation. Engagement of PRRs in dendritic cells (DCs) increases MHC class I antigen presentation and CD8+ T-cell activation by cross-presented peptides but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood. Studies looking at the role of PRRs in cross-presentation have been largely limited to TLRs but the role of other PRRs such as cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like (NOD-like) receptors remains particularly enigmatic. Here we discuss recent evidence of the role of PRRs on cross-presentation and consider how cytosolic NLR-associated pathways, such as NOD2, may integrate these signals resulting in effective adaptive CD8+ T cells responses.