Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

In vertebrate cells, the DNA damage response is controlled by three related kinases: ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK. It has been 20 years since the cloning of ATR, the last of the three to be identified. During this time, our understanding of how these kinases regulate DNA repair and associated events has grown profoundly, although major questions remain unanswered. Here, we provide a historical perspective of their discovery and discuss their established functions in sensing and responding to genotoxic stress. We also highlight what is known regarding their structural similarities and common mechanisms of regulation, as well as emerging non-canonical roles and how our knowledge of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK is being translated to benefit human health.

Original publication




Journal article


Mol Cell

Publication Date





801 - 817


Animals, Antineoplastic Agents, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cell Nucleus, DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Enzyme Activation, History, 20th Century, History, 21st Century, Humans, Models, Molecular, Neoplasms, Phosphorylation, Protein Conformation, Protein Kinase Inhibitors, Signal Transduction, Structure-Activity Relationship, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53