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Burn-McKeown syndrome (BMKS) is a rare syndrome characterized by choanal atresia, prominent ears, abnormalities of the outer third of the lower eyelid, structural cardiac abnormalities, conductive and sensorineural hearing loss, and cleft lip. Recently, causative compound heterozygous variants were identified in TXNL4A. We analyzed an individual with clinical features of BMKS and her parents by whole-genome sequencing and identified compound heterozygous variants in TXNL4A (a novel splice site variant (c.258-2A>G, (p.?)) and a 34 bp promoter deletion (hg19 chr18:g.77748581_77748614del (type 1Δ) in the proband). Subsequently, we tested a cohort of 19 individuals with (mild) features of BMKS and 17 individuals with isolated choanal atresia for causative variants in TXNL4A by dideoxy-sequence analysis. In one individual with BMKS unrelated to the first family, we identified the identical compound heterozygous variants. In an individual with isolated choanal atresia, we found homozygosity for the same type 1Δ promoter deletion, whilst in two cousins from a family with choanal atresia and other minor anomalies we found homozygosity for a different deletion within the promoter (hg19 chr18: g.77748604_77748637del (type 2Δ)). Hence, we identified causative recessive variants in TXNL4A in two individuals with BMKS as well as in three individuals (from two families) with isolated choanal atresia.

Original publication




Journal article


Eur J Hum Genet

Publication Date





1126 - 1133


Choanal Atresia, Deafness, Facies, Female, Gene Deletion, Heart Defects, Congenital, Heterozygote, Homozygote, Humans, Male, Pedigree, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear