Characterization of the major regulatory element upstream of the human alpha-globin gene cluster
Jarman AP., Wood WG., Sharpe JA., Gourdon G., Ayyub H., Higgs DR.
The major positive regulatory activity of the human alpha-globin gene complex has been localized to an element associated with a strong erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive site (HS -40) located 40 kb upstream of the zeta 2-globin mRNA cap site. Footprint and gel shift analyses of the element have demonstrated the presence of four binding sites for the nuclear factor GATA-1 and two sites corresponding to the AP-1 consensus binding sequence. This region resembles one of the major elements of the beta-globin locus control region in its constitution and characteristics; this together with evidence from expression studies suggests that HS -40 is a primary element controlling alpha-globin gene expression.