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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of lymph vessel density (LVD) and lymphangiogenesis in seminomatous testicular cancer (STC) by using the lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) markers LYVE-1 and D2-40. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Paraffin embedded tumor specimens from 40 patients with STC were stained by specific D2-40 and Lyve-1 antibodies. LVD was measured in different representative and standardized areas. Fluorescence double immunostaining for Lyve-1 and Ki-67 was performed and results were correlated with clinicopathologic data. The median follow-up period was 55 (range 10-135) months. RESULTS: Mean intratumoral LVD (D2-40: 1.30 ± 1.99; Lyve-1: 1.82 ± 2.34) was significantly lower than peritumoral LVD (D2-40: 4.94 ± 2.58; Lyve-1: 4.62 ± 2.73) and LVD in nontumoral areas (D2-40: 4.81 ± 3.79; Lyve-1: 4.22 ± 3.19). There was no significant difference between LVD measures when using D2-40 or LYVE-1. Detection rates of lymphatic vascular invasion (LVI) were significantly higher than in conventional HE-stained sections (77.5% vs. 52.5%). No proliferating lymphatic vessels were found. CONCLUSIONS: We found that LVD is decreased within tumor areas of STC. Despite a higher peritumoral LVD, no signs of proliferating endothelial cells were observed, suggesting a lack of lymphangiogenesis in STC. Detection of LVI can be optimized by specific D2-40 or LYVE-1 staining.

Original publication




Journal article


Urol Oncol

Publication Date





1386 - 1394


Lymph vessel density, Lymphangiogenesis, Metastasis, Seminomatous testicular cancer, Adult, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived, Biomarkers, Tumor, Endothelial Cells, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Immunohistochemistry, Ki-67 Antigen, Lymphangiogenesis, Lymphatic Vessels, Male, Middle Aged, Neoplasm Invasiveness, Testicular Neoplasms, Vesicular Transport Proteins