Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

BACKGROUND: SMAD6 encodes an intracellular inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway. Until now, rare heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SMAD6 were demonstrated to increase the risk of disparate clinical disorders including cardiovascular disease, craniosynostosis and radioulnar synostosis. Only two unrelated patients harbouring biallelic SMAD6 variants presenting a complex cardiovascular phenotype and facial dysmorphism have been described. CASES: Here, we present the first two patients with craniosynostosis harbouring homozygous SMAD6 variants. The male probands, both born to healthy consanguineous parents, were diagnosed with metopic synostosis and bilateral or unilateral radioulnar synostosis. Additionally, one proband had global developmental delay. Echocardiographic evaluation did not reveal cardiac or outflow tract abnormalities. MOLECULAR ANALYSES: The novel missense (c.[584T>G];[584T>G], p.[(Val195Gly)];[(Val195Gly)]) and missense/splice-site variant (c.[817G>A];[817G>A], r.[(817g>a,817delins[a;817+2_817+228])];[(817g>a,817delins[a;817+2_817+228])], p.[(Glu273Lys,Glu273Serfs*72)];[(Glu273Lys,Glu273Serfs*72)]) both locate in the functional MH1 domain of the protein and have not been reported in gnomAD database. Functional analyses of the variants showed reduced inhibition of BMP signalling or abnormal splicing, respectively, consistent with a hypomorphic mechanism of action. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the spectrum of variants and phenotypic spectrum associated with homozygous variants of SMAD6 to include craniosynostosis.

Original publication

DOI

10.1136/jmg-2023-109151

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Med Genet

Publication Date

30/01/2024

Keywords

Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities, Human Genetics, Mutation