Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Cellular immunotherapy is now the focus of huge attention and investment from the biopharmaceutical industry, with many early-phase trials demonstrating impressive clinical responses. Spatial-omics demonstrate some causes of poor immunotherapy response, such as infiltration of only exhausted T cells into the tumour niche during checkpoint blockade therapy, or endogenous cytotoxic T cells and/or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells remaining excluded from the tumour by physical barriers, such as trapping by stroma. Tumour antigens can be therapeutically targeted by vaccination or by adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells. A more pharmacological ‘off-the-shelf’ approach to engage native T cells against malignant cells is by using bispecific T-cell engagers and bispecific antibodies. Early trials of natural killer (NK)-cell immunotherapy were based upon infusion of autologous NK cell-activating cytokines or ex vivo activated NK cells, but were largely disappointing.

Original publication





Book title

Practical Transfusion Medicine: Sixth Edition

Publication Date



543 - 553