Antibody-targeted MHC complex-directed expansion of HIV-1- and KSHV-specific CD8+ lymphocytes: a new approach to therapeutic vaccination.
Stebbing J., Gazzard B., Patterson S., Bower M., Perumal D., Nelson M., McMichael A., Ogg G., Epenetos A., Gotch F., Savage P.
The ability of therapeutic vaccines to generate large numbers of CD8+ T lymphocytes that have specificity for HIV-1 or other virally infected cells has enormous potential clinical value. However, approaches to produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo via vaccine technology have thus far been disappointing and the ex vivo production of cells for adoptive transfer is labor intensive and expensive. We describe the results of a 2-step antibody-targeting system for the production of CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for HIV-1 and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), suitable for use in vivo. In 8 consecutive human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-positive HIV-1-infected individuals with Kaposi sarcoma, 2 cycles of this system resulted in more than 1 Log increases of specific anti-HIV and anti-KSHV CD8+ lymphocytes. These expanded cells have an effector phenotype that includes the ability to produce interferon-gamma and CD45Ra+/CD69+ staining. We have shown that antibody-targeted B cells can function as effective antigen-presenting molecules and lead to sustained specific T-lymphocyte expansion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of immunosuppressed individuals. This approach, which offers an easy and effective protocol for the amplification of specific antiviral and antitumor CTLs, may offer significant advances for in vivo T-cell immunotherapeutic protocols.