Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Heterozygous intragenic loss-of-function mutations of ERF, encoding an ETS transcription factor, were previously reported to cause a novel craniosynostosis syndrome, suggesting that ERF is haploinsufficient. We describe six families harboring heterozygous deletions including, or near to, ERF, of which four were characterized by whole-genome sequencing and two by chromosomal microarray. Based on the severity of associated intellectual disability (ID), we identify three categories of ERF-associated deletions. The smallest (32 kb) and only inherited deletion included two additional centromeric genes and was not associated with ID. Three larger deletions (264-314 kb) that included at least five further centromeric genes were associated with moderate ID, suggesting that deletion of one or more of these five genes causes ID. The individual with the most severe ID had a more telomerically extending deletion, including CIC, a known ID gene. Children found to harbor ERF deletions should be referred for craniofacial assessment, to exclude occult raised intracranial pressure.

Original publication




Journal article


Hum Mutat

Publication Date





811 - 817


ERF , CNV, craniosynostosis, haploinsufficiency, intellectual disability, mosaicism