Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Efficient S phase entry is essential for development, tissue repair, and immune defences. However, hyperactive or expedited S phase entry causes replication stress, DNA damage and oncogenesis, highlighting the need for strict regulation. Recent paradigm shifts and conflicting reports demonstrate the requirement for a discussion of the G1/S transition literature. Here, we review the recent studies, and propose a unified model for the S phase entry decision. In this model, competition between mitogen and DNA damage signalling over the course of the mother cell cycle constitutes the predominant control mechanism for S phase entry of daughter cells. Mitogens and DNA damage have distinct sensing periods, giving rise to three Commitment Points for S phase entry (CP1-3). S phase entry is mitogen-independent in the daughter G1 phase, but remains sensitive to DNA damage, such as single strand breaks, the most frequently-occurring lesions that uniquely threaten DNA replication. To control CP1-3, dedicated hubs integrate the antagonistic mitogenic and DNA damage signals, regulating the stoichiometric cyclin: CDK inhibitor ratio for ultrasensitive control of CDK4/6 and CDK2. This unified model for the G1/S cell cycle transition combines the findings of decades of study, and provides an updated foundation for cell cycle research.

Original publication




Journal article


Nucleic Acids Res

Publication Date





12483 - 12501


Cell Cycle, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, Cell Division, DNA Damage, DNA Replication, G1 Phase, Humans, S Phase, Signal Transduction