Applicability of carcinoembryonic antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies to radioimmunoguided surgery for human colorectal carcinoma.
Kim JC., Kim WS., Ryu JS., Oh SJ., Lee DH., Koo KH., Roh SA., Kim HC., Yu CS., Kang GH., Bodmer WF.
Two carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), PR1A3 and T84.66, were tested to determine whether they could accurately localize colorectal carcinoma and therefore be applicable in radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS). Twenty-one tumors by three human colorectal carcinoma cell lines with various levels of CEA expression (KM-12c, C75, and Clone A) were successfully implanted in the intra-abdominal organs of 15 nude mice. The tumors was localized using a portable radioisotope detector (Neoprobe 1000) 48 h after injection of radiolabeled MAbs (10 mCi/mouse) when the precordial counts were <20 per 2 s. Histopathological identification of radiolabeled MAbs were also performed using immunohistochemistry and microautoradiography. Radioactivity counted on a portable radioisotope detector correlated well with that on a gamma counter. The distribution in the blood was significantly greater than in other organs (P < 0.001). Localization indices of the tumor in various organs was from 1.1 to 8.5 in the PR1A3-pretreated mice and 3.0 to 8.6 in the T84.66-pretreated mice. Silver grains and immune staining were distributed in the tumor cells of the PR1A3-pretreated mice, whereas they were in the necrotic debris as well as the tumor cells of the T84.66-pretreated mice. There were significantly more silver grains in the liver in the T84.66-pretreated mice than in the PR1A3-pretreated mice (P = 0.004). The sensitivity and specificity of tumor localization by RIGS were 71.4 and 91.4% in the PR1A3-pretreated mice, whereas they were 60 and 76% in the T84.66-pretreated mice. A study using specific anti-CEA MAbs suggested PR1A3 as an efficient immune probe for RIGS in colorectal carcinoma with a low rate of false-positive detection.