The dynamics of the cellular immune response to HIV infection: implications for vaccination.
McMichael AJ., Callan M., Appay V., Hanke T., Ogg G., Rowland-Jones S.
Recent advances in measuring T-cell responses to viruses have led to new insights into how these T cells respond. In the acute infection there are massive CD8+ T-cell responses to both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many of these T cells are effector cells and only a minority appear to be capable of maintaining immunological memory. In persistent virus infections, high levels of antigen-specific effector cells persist. If virus does not persist, the effectors fade in number but memory is maintained and is primed to react rapidly to a new challenge. A vaccine that stimulates only T-cell responses may protect when these memory cells respond rapidly enough to generate high numbers of effectors before the infecting virus becomes established.