Cutting Edge: High-Dose Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines Elicit Pulmonary Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells in the Face of Pre-Existing Humoral Immunity.
Zheng MZM., Fritzlar S., Wang Z., Tan TK., Kedzierska K., Townsend A., Reading PC., Wakim LM.
In this study, we investigated how pre-existing Ab immunity to influenza virus established from prior immunizations affects the development of CD8+ T cell responses evoked after vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine. Using a mouse model and a panel of live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates (cold adapted and single cycle), we show that pre-existing influenza-specific Abs directed against the vaccine backbone attenuate the size and quality of the vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell response. Importantly, we show that increasing the vaccine dose can overcome this impediment, resulting in improved vaccine-induced circulating and tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cell responses, which were protective against heterologous influenza challenge. Thus, the reduced size and quality of the T cell response elicited by a live attenuated influenza virus vaccine imparted by the influenza-specific Ab landscape of the vaccinee can be overcome by increasing vaccine dose.