Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

C-type cytochromes are a structurally diverse group of haemoproteins, which are related by the occurrence of haem covalently attached to a polypeptide via two thioether bonds formed by the vinyl groups of haem and cysteine side chains in a CXXCH peptide motif. Remarkably, three different post-translational systems for forming these cytochromes have been identified. The evolution of both the proteins themselves and the biogenesis systems poses many questions to which answers are currently being sought. In this article we review the progress that has been made in understanding the need for covalent attachment of haem to proteins in cytochromes c and the complex systems involved in their formation.

Original publication




Journal article


Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci

Publication Date





255 - 266


Amino Acid Motifs, Cytochrome c Group, Evolution, Molecular, Origin of Life, Protein Conformation, Protein Processing, Post-Translational