Analysis of DNase-I-hypersensitive sites at the 3' end of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR).
Nuthall HN., Moulin DS., Huxley C., Harris A.
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) exhibits a complex pattern of expression that shows temporal and spatial regulation, although the control mechanisms are not fully known. We have mapped DNase-I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) flanking the CFTR gene with the aim of identifying potential regulatory elements. We previously characterized DHSs at -79.5 and -20.9 kb with respect to the CFTR translational start site and a regulatory element in the first intron of the gene at 185+10 kb. We have now mapped five DHSs lying 3' to the CFTR gene at 4574+5.4, +6.8, +7.0, +7.4 and +15.6 kb that show some degree of tissue specificity. The DHSs are seen in chromatin extracted from human primary epithelial cells and cell lines; the presence of the +15.6 kb site is tissue-specific in transgenic mice carrying a human CFTR yeast artificial chromosome. Further analysis of the 4574+15.6 kb DHS implicates the involvement of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP), cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) family transcription factors at this regulatory element.