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Hormones play an important role in pathophysiology. The hormone receptors, such as estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor in breast cancer and prostate cancer, are critical to cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. In this review we focused on the cross-talk between hormone and hypoxia pathways, particularly in breast cancer. We delineated a novel signaling pathway from estrogen receptor to hypoxia-inducible factor 1, and discussed the role of this pathway in endocrine therapy resistance. Further, we discussed the estrogen and hypoxia pathways converging at histone demethylase KDM4B, an important epigenetic modifier in cancer.

Original publication




Journal article


Int J Mol Sci

Publication Date





KDM4B, endocrine therapy resistance, estrogen receptor alpha, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, Animals, Base Sequence, Cell Hypoxia, Estrogens, Humans, Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases, Models, Biological, Neoplasms, Signal Transduction