Agonist-independent interactions between beta-arrestins and mutant vasopressin type II receptors associated with nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis.
Kocan M., See HB., Sampaio NG., Eidne KA., Feldman BJ., Pfleger KDG.
Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis is a recently identified genetic disease first described in two unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. It was found that each infant had a different mutation of the vasopressin type II receptor (V2R) at codon 137 where arginine was converted to cysteine or leucine (R137C or R137L), resulting in constitutive signaling. Interestingly, a missense mutation at the same codon, converting arginine to histidine (R137H), leads to the opposite disease phenotype with a loss of the kidney's ability to concentrate urine resulting in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This mutation is associated with impaired signaling, although whether this is predominantly due to impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane, agonist-independent internalization, or G protein uncoupling is currently unclear. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that both V2R-R137C and V2R-R137L mutants interact with beta-arrestins in an agonist-independent manner resulting in dynamin-dependent internalization. This phenotype is similar to that observed for V2R-R137H, which is intriguing considering that it is accompanied by constitutive rather than impaired signaling. Consequently, it would seem that agonist-independent internalization per se is unlikely to be the major determinant of impaired V2R-R137H signaling. Our findings indicate that the V2R-R137C and V2R-R137L mutants traffic considerably more efficiently to the plasma membrane than V2R-R137H, identifying this as a potentially important mutation-dependent difference affecting V2R function.