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The involvement of the diencephalic regions in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) may lead to endocrinopathies. In this study, we identified the following endocrinopathies in 60% (15/25) of young people with paediatric-onset aquaporin 4-Antibody (AQP4-Ab) NMOSD: morbid obesity ( n = 8), hyperinsulinaemia ( n = 5), hyperandrogenism ( n = 5), amenorrhoea ( n = 5), hyponatraemia ( n = 4), short stature ( n = 3) and central hypothyroidism ( n = 2) irrespective of hypothalamic lesions. Morbid obesity was seen in 88% (7/8) of children of Caribbean origin. As endocrinopathies were prevalent in the majority of paediatric-onset AQP4-Ab NMOSD, endocrine surveillance and in particular early aggressive weight management is required for patients with AQP4-Ab NMOSD.

Original publication




Journal article


Mult Scler

Publication Date





679 - 684


Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), Quality of Life, endocrinopathies, hypothalamic involvement, obesity, Adolescent, Amenorrhea, Aquaporin 4, Autoantibodies, Caribbean Region, Child, Cohort Studies, Endocrine System Diseases, Female, Humans, Hyperandrogenism, Hyperinsulinism, Hyponatremia, Hypothalamus, Hypothyroidism, Immunologic Factors, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Morbidity, Neuromyelitis Optica, Obesity, Morbid, Prevalence, Quality of Life