Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). We report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22 t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH2 terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocations occur in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages.

Original publication




Journal article


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date





8538 - 8542


Acute Disease, Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19, Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4, Cloning, Molecular, Codon, DNA, Neoplasm, DNA-Binding Proteins, Gene Rearrangement, Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase, Humans, Leukemia, Molecular Sequence Data, Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein, Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma, Proto-Oncogenes, RNA, Messenger, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Restriction Mapping, Transcription Factors, Transcription, Genetic, Translocation, Genetic, Tumor Cells, Cultured, Zinc Fingers