Characterization of a highly complex region in Xq13 and mapping of three isodicentric breakpoints associated with preleukemia.
McDonell N., Ramser J., Francis F., Vinet MC., Rider S., Sudbrak R., Riesselman L., Yaspo ML., Reinhardt R., Monaco AP., Ross F., Kahn A., Kearney L., Buckle V., Chelly J.
The chromosomal abnormality represented by an isodicentric X chromosome [idic(X)(q13)] is associated with a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and preleukemia observed in elderly females. A previous study localized the breakpoints of two acquired isodicentric X chromosomes associated with myelodysplasia to a 450-kb region proximal to the XIST gene. Here we report the construction and extensive characterization of a reliable 1-Mb P1 artificial chromosome and bacterial artificial chromosome contig covering a highly problematic region in Xq13 that includes the previously described isodicentric breakpoint region. In addition to mapping of the brain-specific gene (NAP1L2) and the phosphoglyceryl kinase alpha subunit 1 gene (PHKA1) and generation and mapping of a large number of STSs throughout the contig, we have mapped a putative transcriptional regulatory protein (HDACL1), and 35 ESTs. Sequencing data, Southern blot analysis, and fiber-FISH analysis have permitted characterization of extensive region-specific duplications and triplications in addition to an unusually high concentration of long interspersed repeat elements, both of which could be implicated in isodicentric chromosome formation and other Xq13 chromosome aberrations. FISH analysis of metaphase chromosomes from two previously unpublished AML patients and one preleukemic patient using cosmid clones and selected subclones allowed mapping of the idic(X)(q13) breakpoints to a 100-kb interval, consistent with the involvement of an X-linked gene in the genesis of this form of preleukemia, disruption of which may represent a preliminary step in progression to AML. Assembly and physical mapping of this complex 1-Mb contig establish a foundation for ongoing sequencing and gene identification projects in the region.