Clinical imaging of tumor angiogenesis.
Patel N., Harris AL., Gleeson FV., Vallis KA.
Angiogenesis is an integral part of tumor growth and invasion. This has led to the emergence of several antiangiogenic therapies and stimulated efforts to accurately evaluate the extent of angiogenesis before and in response to anticancer treatment. The most commonly used approach has been the assessment of new vessel formation in histological samples. However, it is becoming apparent that this is insufficient for a full understanding of tumor physiology and for in vivo guidance of cancer management. Imaging has the potential to provide noninvasive and repeatable assessment of the angiogenic process. Imaging approaches use a variety of modalities and are aimed at either assessment of the functional integrity of tumor vasculature or assessment of its molecular status. This review summarizes the aims and methods of clinical tumor angiogenesis imaging, including present technologies and ones that will be developed within the next 5-10 years.