Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) induces in vitro invasion and in vivo hormone independent growth of breast carcinoma cells.
Clement JH., Raida M., Sänger J., Bicknell R., Liu J., Naumann A., Geyer A., Waldau A., Hortschansky P., Schmidt A., Höffken K., Wölft S., Harris AL.
Breast cancer cell lines migrated towards a BMP-2 source depending on BMP-2 concentration. After a short exposure to BMP-2, the cells were able to migrate through matrigel. MCF-7 cells transfected with the BMP-2 gene also showed enhanced migratory properties and high expression of the metastasis-related gene BCSG1. In a xenograft model without estrogen supplementation MCF-7/BMP-2 cells formed tumors. These tumors were characterised by an enhanced vasculature and the formation of chondroid and osseous structures. In conclusion elevated levels of BMP-2 enhance the tumorigenic properties of breast carcinoma cells and drive the cells towards a more aggressive phenotype with estrogen independent growth.