Phase I and pharmacological study of the oral matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMI270 (CGS27023A), in patients with advanced solid cancer.
Levitt NC., Eskens FA., O'Byrne KJ., Propper DJ., Denis LJ., Owen SJ., Choi L., Foekens JA., Wilner S., Wood JM., Nakajima M., Talbot DC., Steward WP., Harris AL., Verweij J.
This Phase I study of MMI270, an p.o. administered matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, assessed toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and tumor response data and investigated markers of biological activity to recommend a dose for Phase II studies. MMI270 was administered continuously at seven dose levels (50 mg once daily to 600 mg three times/day). Patients were evaluated for toxicity and tumor response, and blood and urine samples were taken for pharmacokinetics, bone resorption markers, direct targets of the inhibitor [matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-8, and MMP-9], indirect targets [tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and cathepsins B and H] and for a tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytokine release assay. Ninety-two patients were entered. There was no myelotoxicity. Eighteen patients developed a widespread maculopapular rash, which increased in frequency and severity at doses > or = 300 mg bid. Thirty nine patients developed musculoskeletal side effects, which were related to duration of treatment, not to dose level. Pharmacokinetics were linear, and MMI270 was rapidly absorbed and eliminated with minimal accumulation on chronic dosing. Sustained plasma concentrations in excess of 4 x mean IC(50) for the target enzymes were observed at dose levels > or = 150 mg bid. There were no tumor regressions; however, 19 patients had stable disease for > or = 90 days. There was a dose-response increase of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 with MMI270. Transient effects on the bone resorption markers were detected. MMI270 was generally well tolerated, with adequate plasma levels for target enzyme inhibition. The two main toxicities were rash, resulting in a maximum tolerated dose of 300 mg bid and musculoskeletal side effects. Biological marker data indicate drug effects. The rise in TIMP-1 suggests that a reflex rise in inhibitors could modify the effects of MMI270. The recommended Phase II dose is 300 mg bid.