OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional consequences of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4648889 in a putative enhancer upstream of the RUNX3 promoter associated with susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Using nuclear extracts from Jurkat cells and primary human CD8+ T cells, the effects of rs4648889 on allele-specific transcription factor (TF) binding were investigated by DNA pull-down assay and quantitative mass spectrometry (qMS), with validation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Western blotting of the pulled-down eluates, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Further functional effects were tested by small interfering RNA knockdown of the gene for interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), followed by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure the levels of IFNγ messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, respectively. RESULTS: In nuclear extracts from CD8+ T cells, results of qMS showed that relative TF binding to the AS-risk A allele of rs4648889 was increased 3.7-fold (P < 0.03) for Ikaros family zinc-finger protein 3 (IKZF3; Aiolos) and components of the NuRD complex, including chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4 (CHD4) (3.6-fold increase; P < 0.05) and retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4) (4.1-fold increase; P < 0.03). In contrast, IRF5 bound significantly more to the AS-protective G allele compared to the AS-risk A allele (fold change 8.2; P = 0.003). Validation with Western blotting, EMSA, and ChIP-qPCR confirmed the differential allelic binding of IKZF3, CHD4, RBBP4, and IRF5. Silencing of IRF5 in CD8+ T cells increased the levels of IFNγ mRNA as measured by RT-qPCR (P = 0.03) and IFNγ protein as measured by ELISA (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the association of rs4648889 with AS reflects allele-specific binding of this enhancer-like region to certain TFs, including IRF5, IKZF3, and members of the NuRD complex. IRF5 may have crucial influences on the functions of CD8+ lymphocytes, a finding that could reveal new therapeutic targets for the management of AS.
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Blotting, Western, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Core Binding Factor Alpha 3 Subunit, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Gene Expression Regulation, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Ikaros Transcription Factor, Interferon Regulatory Factors, Interferon-gamma, Jurkat Cells, Mass Spectrometry, Mi-2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, RNA, Messenger, RNA, Small Interfering, Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 4, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Spondylitis, Ankylosing, Transcription Factors