Abstract Root pathogens are a major threat in global crop production and protection strategies are required to sustainably enhance the efficiency of root immunity. Our understanding of root immunity is still limited relative to our knowledge of immune responses in leaves. In an effort to reveal the organisation of immunity in roots, we undertook a cell type-specific transcriptome analysis to identify gene networks activated in epidermis, cortex and pericycle cells of Arabidopsis roots upon treatment with two immunity elicitors, the bacterial microbe-associated molecular pattern flagellin, and the endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern Pep1. Our analyses revealed that both elicitors induced immunity gene networks in a cell type-specific manner. Interestingly, both elicitors did not alter cell identity-determining gene networks. Using sophisticated paired motif promoter analyses, we identified key transcription factor pairs involved in the regulation of cell type-specific immunity networks. In addition, our data show that cell identity networks integrate with cell immunity networks to activate cell type-specific immune response according to the functional capabilities of each cell type. Material Distribution Footnote The author responsible for distribution of materials integral to the findings presented in this article in accordance with the policy described in the Instructions for Authors ( www.plantcell.org ) is: Patrick Schäfer ( email@example.com ).