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Obstructive azoospermia (OA), defined as an obstruction in any region of the male genital tract, accounts for 40% of all azoospermia cases. Of all OA cases, ~30% are thought to have a genetic origin, however, hitherto, the underlying genetic etiology of the majority of these cases remain unknown. To address this, we took a family-based whole-exome sequencing approach to identify causal variants of OA in a multiplex family with epidydimal obstruction. A novel gain-of-function missense variant in CLDN2 (c.481G>C; p.Gly161Arg) was found to co-segregate with the phenotype, consistent with the X-linked inheritance pattern observed in the pedigree. To assess the pathogenicity of this variant, the wild and mutant protein structures were modeled and their potential for strand formation in multimeric form was assessed and compared. The results showed that dimeric and tetrameric arrangements of Claudin-2 were not only reduced, but were also significantly altered by this single residue change. We, therefore, envisage that this amino acid change likely forms a polymeric discontinuous strand, which may lead to the disruption of tight junctions among epithelial cells. This missense variant is thus likely to be responsible for the disruption of the blood-epididymis barrier, causing dislodged epithelial cells to clog the genital tract, hence causing OA. This study not only sheds light on the underlying pathobiology of OA, but also provides a basis for more efficient diagnosis in the clinical setting.

Original publication




Journal article


J Hum Genet

Publication Date





1023 - 1032


Azoospermia, Claudins, Family, Humans, Male, Models, Molecular, Mutation, Missense, Pedigree, Phenotype, Whole Exome Sequencing