Found 12535 matches for
Researchers in the Simmons lab chart the embryonic origins and appearance of diverse intestinal cellular compartments, with important implications for intestinal diseases.
Discovery of a CD10-negative B-progenitor in human fetal life identifies unique ontogeny-related developmental programs.
Human lymphopoiesis is a dynamic lifelong process that starts in utero 6 weeks postconception. Although fetal B-lymphopoiesis remains poorly defined, it is key to understanding leukemia initiation in early life. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the human fetal B-cell developmental hierarchy. We report the presence in fetal tissues of 2 distinct CD19+ B-progenitors, an adult-type CD10+ve ProB-progenitor and a new CD10-ve PreProB-progenitor, and describe their molecular and functional characteristics. PreProB-progenitors and ProB-progenitors appear early in the first trimester in embryonic liver, followed by a sustained second wave of B-progenitor development in fetal bone marrow (BM), where together they form >40% of the total hematopoietic stem cell/progenitor pool. Almost one-third of fetal B-progenitors are CD10-ve PreProB-progenitors, whereas, by contrast, PreProB-progenitors are almost undetectable (0.53% ± 0.24%) in adult BM. Single-cell transcriptomics and functional assays place fetal PreProB-progenitors upstream of ProB-progenitors, identifying them as the first B-lymphoid-restricted progenitor in human fetal life. Although fetal BM PreProB-progenitors and ProB-progenitors both give rise solely to B-lineage cells, they are transcriptionally distinct. As with their fetal counterparts, adult BM PreProB-progenitors give rise only to B-lineage cells in vitro and express the expected B-lineage gene expression program. However, fetal PreProB-progenitors display a distinct, ontogeny-related gene expression pattern that is not seen in adult PreProB-progenitors, and they share transcriptomic signatures with CD10-ve B-progenitor infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia blast cells. These data identify PreProB-progenitors as the earliest B-lymphoid-restricted progenitor in human fetal life and suggest that this fetal-restricted committed B-progenitor might provide a permissive cellular context for prenatal B-progenitor leukemia initiation.
Down syndrome is associated with genome-wide perturbation of gene expression, which may be mediated by epigenetic changes. We perform an epigenome-wide association study on neonatal bloodspots comparing 196 newborns with Down syndrome and 439 newborns without Down syndrome, adjusting for cell-type heterogeneity, which identifies 652 epigenome-wide significant CpGs (P
Hhex is Required at Multiple Stages of Adult Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Differentiation.
Hhex encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is widely expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations. Its enforced expression induces T-cell leukemia and we have implicated it as an important oncogene in early T-cell precursor leukemias where it is immediately downstream of an LMO2-associated protein complex. Conventional Hhex knockouts cause embryonic lethality precluding analysis of adult hematopoiesis. Thus, we induced highly efficient conditional knockout (cKO) using vav-Cre transgenic mice. Hhex cKO mice were viable and born at normal litter sizes. At steady state, we observed a defect in B-cell development that we localized to the earliest B-cell precursor, the pro-B-cell stage. Most remarkably, bone marrow transplantation using Hhex cKO donor cells revealed a more profound defect in all hematopoietic lineages. In contrast, sublethal irradiation resulted in normal myeloid cell repopulation of the bone marrow but markedly impaired repopulation of T- and B-cell compartments. We noted that Hhex cKO stem and progenitor cell populations were skewed in their distribution and showed enhanced proliferation compared to WT cells. Our results implicate Hhex in the maintenance of LT-HSCs and in lineage allocation from multipotent progenitors especially in stress hematopoiesis.
Abstract Hematopoietically expressed homeobox (Hhex) is a T-cell oncogene. It is frequently deregulated in murine retroviral insertional mutagenesis screens and its enforced expression induces T-cell leukemia in bone marrow transduction and transplantation experiments. We discovered that HHEX is a direct transcriptional target of an LIM domain Only-2 (LMO2)-associated protein complex. HHEX clusters with LMO2-overexpressing T-ALLs and is especially overexpressed in Early T-cell Precursor (ETP) – ALL where it is a direct transcriptional target of LMO2. To further understand Hhex's function, we induced a conditional knockout in floxed Hhex mice with the Vav-iCre transgene. Mice were viable and showed normal blood cell counts with highly efficient deletion of Hhex in all hematopoietic tissues. Thymocytes from conditional knockouts showed a normal pattern of development. Most impressively, Hhex conditional knockout markedly prolonged the latency of T-ALL onset in CD2-Lmo2 transgenic mice (figure 1). Hhex conditional knockouts (Hhex cKOs) also had a significant decrease in mature B cells in the spleen and bone marrow. Interestingly, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells plated on OP9-GFP or OP9-DL1 stromal cells showed proliferative defects and incomplete differentiation towards both B and T lineage. Also under stress conditions such as sublethal irradiation and competitive bone marrow transplants, Hhex conditional knockouts show a marked defect in both B and T lineages but an increase in early progenitor populations. Our experiments show that Hhex is a critical transcription factor in lymphoid development and in LMO2-induced T-ALL.Figure 1Hhex conditional knockout markedly prolonged the latency of T-ALL onset in CD2-Lmo2 transgenic miceFigure 1. Hhex conditional knockout markedly prolonged the latency of T-ALL onset in CD2-Lmo2 transgenic mice Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Abstract Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an incurable disease where most patients succumb within the first year of diagnosis. Both standard chemotherapy regimens and mAbs directed against ATLL tumor markers do not alter this aggressive clinical course. Therapeutic development would be facilitated by the discovery of genes and pathways that drive or initiate ATLL, but so far amenable drug targets have not been forthcoming. Because the IL-2 signaling pathway plays a prominent role in ATLL pathogenesis, mutational analysis of pathway components should yield interesting results. In this study, we focused on JAK3, the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that signals from the IL-2R, where activating mutations have been found in diverse neoplasms. We screened 36 ATLL patients and 24 ethnically matched controls and found 4 patients with mutations in JAK3. These somatic, missense mutations occurred in the N-terminal FERM (founding members: band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) domain and induced gain of function in JAK3. Importantly, we show that these mutant JAK3s are inhibited with a specific kinase inhibitor already in human clinical testing. Our findings underscore the importance of this pathway in ATLL development and offer a therapeutic handle for this incurable cancer.
The GP130 cytokine receptor subunit encoded by IL6ST is the shared receptor for ten cytokines of the IL-6 family. We describe a homozygous non-synonymous variant in IL6ST (p.R281Q) in a patient with craniosynostosis and retained deciduous teeth. We characterize the impact of the variant on cytokine signaling in vitro using transfected cell lines as well as primary patient-derived cells and support these findings using a mouse model with the corresponding genome-edited variant Il6st p.R279Q. We show that human GP130 p.R281Q is associated with selective loss of IL-11 signaling without affecting IL-6, IL-27, OSM, LIF, CT1, CLC, and CNTF signaling. In mice Il6st p.R279Q lowers litter size and causes facial synostosis and teeth abnormalities. The effect on IL-11 signaling caused by the GP130 variant shows incomplete penetrance but phenocopies aspects of IL11RA deficiency in humans and mice. Our data show that a genetic variant in a pleiotropic cytokine receptor can have remarkably selective defects.
Eating disorders treatment experiences and social support: Perspectives from service seekers in mainland China.
OBJECTIVE: This study explored treatment experiences and social support among individuals with eating disorders (EDs) in mainland China. METHOD: Subscribers of a Chinese online social media platform (WeChat) focused on EDs were invited to complete a screening questionnaire that included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale for the DSM-5. Of the 116 questionnaire responses, 31 met inclusion criteria for follow-up interviews. Individuals who never sought treatment were not eligible for follow-up interviews, but provided brief explanations about why they did not seek treatment. All eligible participants (n = 31) completed a semi-structured interview about their experiences with ED treatment and social support. Qualitative data from the interviews and survey responses regarding not seeking treatment were subjected to inductive data-driven thematic analysis with deductive coding to illuminate treatment and social support experiences or reasons for not seeking treatment. RESULTS: Themes emerged from interviews revealed positive inpatient treatment experiences for anorexia nervosa, but negative outpatient treatment experiences, unaffordable care, and ineffective psychopharmacological treatments. Parents, friends, and partners were sources of social support, but participants largely felt misunderstood or blamed by these same entities. Shame, not recognizing ED as an illness, and financial constraints were listed as the primary reasons for not seeking treatment. DISCUSSION: The importance of hearing patients' perspectives, improving ED literacy in China, increasing knowledge of culturally specific manifestations of EDs, and developing culturally responsive services and dissemination of treatment resources are emphasized.
A KMT2A-AFF1 gene regulatory network highlights the role of core transcription factors and reveals the regulatory logic of key downstream target genes.
Regulatory interactions mediated by transcription factors (TFs) make up complex networks that control cellular behavior. Fully understanding these gene regulatory networks (GRNs) offers greater insight into the consequences of disease-causing perturbations than can be achieved by studying single TF binding events in isolation. Chromosomal translocations of the lysine methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A) produce KMT2A fusion proteins such as KMT2A-AFF1, causing poor prognosis acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs) that sometimes relapse as acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). KMT2A-AFF1 is thought to drive leukemogenesis through direct binding and inducing aberrant overexpression of key gene targets, such as the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2 and the proto-oncogene MYC However, studying direct binding alone does not allow for network generated regulatory outputs, including the indirect induction of gene repression. To better understand the KMT2A-AFF1 driven regulatory landscape, we integrated ChIP-seq, patient RNA-seq and CRISPR essentiality screens to generate a model GRN. This GRN identified several key transcription factors, including RUNX1, that regulate target genes downstream of KMT2A-AFF1 using feed-forward loop (FFL) and cascade motifs. A core set of nodes are present in both ALL and AML, and CRISPR screening revealed several factors that help mediate response to the drug venetoclax. Using our GRN, we then identified an KMT2A-AFF1:RUNX1 cascade that represses CASP9, as well as KMT2A-AFF1 driven FFLs that regulate BCL2 and MYC through combinatorial TF activity. This illustrates how our GRN can be used to better connect KMT2A-AFF1 behavior to downstream pathways that contribute to leukemogenesis, and potentially predict shifts in gene expression that mediate drug response.